Just like humans , horses as well has nutrition that keeps them calm. Supplements to calm your horse? While it may sound too good to be true, there are, indeed, certain nutrients which have been known to improve a horse’s “attitude”. We bring you Best Calming Supplements For Horses
Best Calming Supplements For Horses. However, before giving any type of calming supplement, it’s important to rule out other issues that could be negatively affecting your horse’s behavior. Ulcers, subtle lameness, or dental problems, among other things, could be to blame. Likewise, a horse working on an empty stomach is more likely to have behavioral issues—so ensure that forage is always offered before work.
But if other problems have been ruled out, a calming supplement may very well benefit your high-strung horse. Let’s take a look at some commonly used ingredients in Best Calming Supplements For Horses:
Magnesium Many horses are magnesium deficient and can benefit from supplementation. Magnesium is actually one of the most important nutrients needed by the body as it regulates over 325 enzymes and increases oxygen delivery to muscle tissue. Additionally, magnesium activates enzymes needed for carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. This mineral is well-known for its ability to relax muscles and have an overall calming effect on horses.
B Vitamins B vitamins may also play an important role in reducing stress. Horses can generate the majority of their own B vitamins, which occur as micro-organisms in the hind gut, but there is some evidence showing that additional supplementation can benefit horses during high stress situations or extreme exertion, such as that experienced with endurance riding or racing.
Let’s take a look at some specific B-vitamins and their functions Of Best Calming Supplements For Horses:
Thiamine (B-1): Thiamine aids in transmitting nerve impulses. Feeding higher levels of this B vitamin is thought to have a calming effect on nervous horses.
Riboflavin (B-2): Like magnesium, this B vitamin is crucial for carbohydrate and protein metabolism. It also plays an important role in the function of the nervous system.
Niacin (B-3): B-3 is also essential for the metabolism of fats, protein, and carbohydrates. Additionally, it helps to increase blood flow in the extremities.
Pyridoxine (B-6): B-6 is essential for protein metabolism, energy production, and maintaining a healthy nervous system.
Folic Acid (B-9): Folic acid helps to produce hemoglobin and red blood cells, essential for a healthy circulatory system.
Herbs A number of herbs are also known to have calming properties, but the drawback is that they may have an over-tranquilizing effect, interact with other medications, or have possible unwanted side effects. Chamomile, valerian, black cohosh, ginger root, and passion flower are a few examples. Additionally, some herbs will show up on drug testing.
At Peak Performance Nutrients, we carry several calming supplements such as Ex Stress, an all-natural, herb-free formula which can help your horse handle the stress of travel and competition. This product is available as a powder, pellet, or event-day paste. Out of 30 calming supplements tested, Horse Journal picked Ex Stress as the overall best choice.
Best Calming Supplements For Horses, We also have two multi-use vitamin, mineral and amino acid formulas for race horses: Pro V.M. and Pro V.M. with EFA’s. These two products include magnesium as well as several B vitamins and may have a positive effect on behavior.
When it comes to Equine Horses, most people associate Exercise Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage (EIPH) with racehorses, but the condition can, in fact, occur with nearly any type of performance horse.
In Equine Horses EIPH occurs when blood vessels in the lung break as a result of intense exercise. Usually, only small blood vessels are involved. The blood enters the airways and moves up the trachea (windpipe), where in most cases, it’s swallowed and never seen. However, in a smaller number of cases, larger blood vessels rupture, and the amount of blood is too much for the horse to swallow. This causes blood to appear in the nostrils (epistaxis), and this form of EIPH is more serious.
Researchers believe EIPH may have a number of causes, ranging from increased blood pressure during exercise to respiratory disease or even heart problems in Equine Horses.
According to research, EIPH affects between 40-80% of all Equine Horses racehorses (though some sources say nearly all racehorses experience EIPH), 45% of barrel horses, 30% of polo ponies, and 13% of eventers. In most cases, the incidence and severity of EIPH increases with age.
While mild bleeding likely has little to no effect on performance, moderate to severe EIPH will negatively impact performance. Repeated episodes of EIPH cause scarring and irreversible damage to the lungs, so identifying and treating the condition early on is crucial.
Chinese Herbs for EIPH
Yunnan Paiyo is a blend of herbs which has long been used as a hemostatic and blood coagulating agent in both human and veterinary medicine. Clinical studies have shown Yunnan Paiyo to speed blood clotting and reduce inflammatory response.
Giant puffball is another herb (mushroom) known to have hemostatic effects and is particularly beneficial for oral or nasal bleeding. Urn orchid (bletilla striata) reduces swelling, decreases bleeding, and promotes new tissue formation. This herb is often used to treat chronic cough, tuberculosis, and bronchitis.
EIPH should never be taken lightly, and veterinary management is recommended. However, Chinese herbs can offer support for normal and healthy lung function in horses. Please consult your veterinarian before using any treatment for EIPH.
Azzalure is a mode of action when injected into the target muscle, Azzalure (botulinum toxin type A) binds to the presynaptic nerve endings, crosses the pre-synaptic nerve membrane and blocks release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This results in a reversible, inhibition of neurotransmission at the neuromuscular junction of the injected muscles (1-5)
After injection in the glabellar muscles (corrugators and procerus), moderate to severe glabellar wrinkles are reduced.
The median time to onset of response is 2 to 3 days following treatment. An optimal effect was demonstrated for up to 4 months after injection. Some patients were still responders at 5 months. The treatment interval depends on the individual patient’s response after assessment. Treatment interval should not be more frequent than every 3 months (6-10). RSO
Potential risks associated with the use of Azzalure ®
The nature of the potential adverse reactions is consistent with the pharmacological action of botulinum toxin type A and the injection procedure. It can include injection site reactions, headaches or clinically detectable effects in the muscles adjacent to the target muscles injected. Every effort should be made to avoid injection of excess botulinum toxin (i.e. overdosing) which can bind to sites outside the target area (11-14) or very rarely lead to remote effect of botulinum toxin A.
Knowledge of facial anatomy, training on the injection of botulinum toxin A in the glabella, consideration of the patient’s goal, examination of the patient’s facial mimics and wrinkles and the use of Azzalure ® according to the recommendations in the SmPC, i.e., for dose, product reconstitution and injection sites, will optimise treatment effect and safety. The most frequently occurring adverse reactions are headache and injection site reactions. In general, treatment/injection technique related reactions occur within the week following the injection and are transient.
This article focuses on parasites and puppies. Puppies are immature dogs, and the word “puppy” describes dogs from birth to sexual maturity, which is around 4 to 6 months of age. It varies depending on the breed. You may have heard the term “deworm” which is, basically, treating for parasites using drugs called anthelmintics. Given the term deworm, people seem to mainly think about worms, but a couple of other categories of parasites are worth mentioning.
Common Parasites That Affect Puppies
There are five main groups of parasites that commonly infect puppies:
Nematodes (hookworms, heartworms, whipworms)
Coccidia (Isospora, Cryptosporidium)
Protozoa (Toxoplasma and Giardia)
Only a few of these parasites can be easily seen: tapeworms, whipworms and roundworms. The rest are microscopic, and they are identified in body fluids, primarily in the feces. So, if your puppy has diarrhea but you don’t see any “worms” that doesn’t mean parasites are not the cause! The most important being roundworms, hookworms, coccidia and tapeworms.
What Parasites Are Most Common In Puppies?
While parasites can infect dogs at any life stage, puppies are a concern because they don’t have a mature immune system, they don’t have a lot of fat stores to use for energy and they have higher fluid intake demands than adults. Because most of the common parasites cause inappetance, diarrhea and vomiting, loss of fluid is more harmful to puppies than adult dogs. Some parasites are spread to puppies through their mother via the placenta or through mother’s milk — roundworms are a key example of this. The following table gives you an idea of how common these parasites are:
So, in puppies, the greatest concern is infection with roundworms and hookworms because they are very common and cause serious illness. Tapeworms and whipworms, while sometimes found as frequently or more often, don’t cause as serious of disease in puppies.
Symptoms And More Of Specific Parasites
Diagnosis Of Worms And Other Parasites In Puppies
Some puppy parasites are large enough to see and can be found in the feces or on the areas around the anus. I would say the most common is the tapeworm. Tapeworms are made up of segments (proglottids) where their eggs are contained. They shed these segments in the stool, and many puppy owners see these segments in the stool, on their puppy’s fur or on the ground. They look like small maggots or cooked rice grains that move — YUCK!
Even if you see parasites in your puppy’s stool, a veterinarian should still examine him to determine exactly what is infecting your puppy. Choosing the treatment, knowing if the parasite is a danger to you, other pets or your family, and the need for environmental/home cleaning all depend on the type of parasite causing the infection.
Have you ever been asked by your veterinarian to “bring in a stool sample”? Well, that’s what we examine to search for parasite eggs and microscopic parasites. This is the most common method to diagnose roundworms, hookworms, whipworms and coccidia. Other parasites, namely whipworms and Toxoplasma, don’t shed their eggs routinely in the stool. There are other tests of the blood and serum for those parasites whose eggs are not readily found in feces; these are mostly used for Giardia.
Treating Worms And Other Parasites In Puppies
Many treatments are available for control of parasitic infections, and these come in many formulations: pills, chewable dog treats, liquid, granules added to dog food, pastes and injections. The benzimidazoles are most popular and include drugs like fenbendazole, mebendazole and albendazole. This class of anthelmintics (anti-parasite drugs) are used to treat roundworms, tapeworms, hookworms and whipworms. A typical treatment protocol would be to give the product for one to three days and then repeat the dosing in two to three weeks. The repeat dosing is used to kill the parasites that were not adults (eggs, larvae) during the first treatment but have now “grown up.” Most life cycles of puppy parasites are around three weeks long.
ther parasite treatments include praziquantel, used for flukes and tapeworms; pyrantel pamoate for roundworms and other nematodes; and macrocyclic lactones like ivermectin and milbemycin found in heartworm preventives. So, by using most monthly heartworm preventives, you can also treat for intestinal parasites.
Side Effects Of Deworming Puppies
For the most part, the major classes of anti-parasite drugs (avermectins/benzimadizoles) have a very high margin of safety, meaning that giving too much will rarely cause problems. That being said, always follow your veterinarian’s recommendations for deworming.
Puppies with a large number of parasites (high worm burden) may become ill after treatment. Imagine all of the parasites in the intestines all dying at once, the lining of the intestines become inflamed, causing diarrhea, vomiting and lack of appetite. This is usually a self-limiting problem, and puppies are back to normal within a day or so.
Use of heartworm preventive in higher doses (ivermectin) is very effective against most parasites; however, some breeds cannot tolerate the higher dose. This relates to a mutation in a gene called MDR-1, which codes for proteins that protect the brain (blood-brain barrier). When dogs with MDR-1 mutation get drugs like ivermectin, opiates (morphine-like painkillers) and chemotherapy, they can have serious problems like lapsing into a coma, tremors and death.
Prevention: Puppy Worming Schedule And The Environment
Using many of the same drugs for treating parasitic infections will also prevent them. Current recommendations from the CDC and the American Association of Veterinary Parasitologists are to provide deworming medications against roundworms and hookworms at 2 weeks of age, repeating the dewormer every 2 weeks until the pups are 2 months old. Ideally, treat monthly from 2 months to 6 months of age to eliminate different developing stages of the intestinal parasites. Puppies should be dewormed using the above protocol despite fecal exam results.
Puppies may have prepatent infections with minimal to no parasite eggs being shed in their feces.
Pregnant dogs should also be treated to try to prevent transplacental infection to the fetal pups and to prevent transmission through nursing. Your veterinarian will provide a plan for you, because there are a few regimens available. Housing conditions and location are important factors related to parasitic infection. Puppies housed together, with frequent exposure to new dogs and puppies, are more likely to become infected. Unclean conditions, exposure to other animals’ feces, and transmission from other creatures — like fleas, mosquitoes and cockroaches — increase the chance of infection, too.
As with any medical product, there are persons who search for more “natural” ingredients. The problem is that there is little scientific data proving or disproving their effectiveness. Many products have multiple ingredients like sage leaf, fennel seed and papaya leaf. Although individual ingredients can have some degree of anti-parasite activity, the exact dose and combination needed to kill and prevent parasites is largely unknown to the scientific community.
Some naturalistic and holistic health care providers recommend products like diatomaceous earth and garlic to prevent parasites from infecting the GI tract. I could find little peer-reviewed, scientific information on whether that combination truly is effective in puppies. However, there was one paper in the journal Veterinary Parasitology that stated garlic and papaya do not control parasites in goats and lambs.
In my opinion, because the more modern dewormers (fenbendazole, praziquantel, pyrantel) are so safe, proven and relatively inexpensive, there is no need to experiment with herbs and plants on your puppy to treat his or her worms.
Puppy Parasite Danger To Humans
Not only do many of these parasites cause illness in puppies, but some can infect people and other species like cats. Contagious agents that infect multiple species and spread from animals to humans are called “zoonotic.” Hookworms and roundworms can invade broken skin, causing “larva migrans,” which are parasites that migrate through an unsuitable host. Parasites need their hosts to not only get food, but also to complete their life cycle and reproduce.
When puppy parasites like hookworms, roundworms and Toxoplasma infect people, those parasites cannot complete their life cycle. However, they will cause problems! For example, say you are playing catch in the dog park and bend down to tie your shoelace. Then you wipe your brow, unsuspectingly infecting your eye with a dog roundworm. Well, that worm can cause ocular larva migrans. It will actually grow and move around inside your eye, and could cause blindness. Visceral migrans occurs when roundworms migrate through the inside of the abdomen, causing damage to internal organs. Canine roundworms are the leading cause of visceral and ocular larva migrans. Hookworms cause cutaneous larva migrans; they penetrate the skin and live under the surface, creating red, irritated marks. I tell my kids that they are never to run around a sandbox or playground without their shoes on because stray dogs and cats frequent those areas to find food from trash bins. It’s likely that they’ll also urinate and defecate in those same areas, infecting the ground with parasites.
If you have children, then you’ve probably heard about toxoplasmosis, which is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a very common parasite found in cats. Toxoplasmosis can cause birth defects and death of the fetus, in dogs and in humans. This protozoan needs a feline host and most cats never become ill from it. They shed Toxoplasma oocysts in their feces. This parasite is not a major problem for puppies.
Coccidia and Giardia are also zoonotic and many dogs will have a few of these parasites but not have illness associated with them. Some experts believe that all dogs have coccidia and Giardia as commensal organisms, like the bacteria that live in your mouth. Most recommend only treating for these parasites if symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea and such are present.
Cryptosporidium is a major problem in cows and other ruminants. Dogs are rarely affected, but puppies and dogs with compromised immune systems can get sick, typically with vomiting and diarrhea. Luckily the strain that infects cows and people rarely is found in puppies. That strain led to a major outbreak of illness in Milwaukee back in 1993. It was the largest waterborne outbreak of disease in U.S. history!
In The Know About Parasites In Puppies
I hope that you now have plenty of information about parasites affecting puppies. Remember, all puppies should be treated from 2 weeks of age to 8 weeks of age, minimum. Products like fenbendazole are very safe and effective. Many parasites that your puppy may have can infect you and your family, like roundworms and hookworms. Please speak to your family veterinarian about parasite control and stay away from “Dr. Google,” where you’ll find thousands of testimonials on how a homemade brew of herbs and such cured a puppy’s whipworm infection.
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Sputolysin® Poeder 420g is a secretolytic for use in respiratory disease in horses. Efficacy has been demonstrated in lung function tests. Clinical use and pharmacological studies in laboratory animals established the following mechanisms of action: 1) pronounced expectorant effects 2) secondary anti-tussive action 3) an increase in the anti-atelectase factor which compensates for decreases in lung surfactant (lowered surface tension in the alveolar region caused by stress and disease) 4) increased lung compliance
A few decades ago, Dubai was nothing but a fishing and pearling town along the creek. Life was tough in this harsh desert. They reared sheep and goats for food and wool. Wool was a necessity during winters. They used falcons for hunting and horses for wars. But above all, one animal became an integral part of their daily life. If not for these beasts, it would have been impossible for them to survive the desert. I am talking about the camel — the ship of the desert.
There are two predominant theories as to why they are called the ‘ship of the desert’. One theory suggests that it was because of the way they walked, swaying side to side like a ship on a tumultuous sea. According to the other, it was because of the incredible ability of these animals to traverse the desert with so much weight on their back.
Camels and Arab heritage
Camels were a prized possession of Arabs. They took pride in the number of camels they owned. Camels were expensive and served as a source of wool, food, and transportation. In the past, the Agals (the black ring that Arabs wear on top of their headdresses) were made of camel wool. Look at the volumes of poems they penned about Camels to really understand the love Arabs have for camels. When Arabs liked something a lot, it was in their nature to versify their love. Poetry ran in their blood. They called their camels like they would call one another.
Even today, as modern technology has taken over much of Dubai, they still love their camels. Numerous camel farms across the country are evidence of this. You won’t see camels anymore in metropolitan Dubai except as tourist attractions. They are mostly found on farms on the outskirts of the city. But some Bedouin families have their own camels even to this day.
Hello, welcome This is Marry we will like to tell you about her weight loss story and to inform readers about the remarkable way Phentermine has transformed my life. As you read the following paragraphs, you will learn more about the amazing drug that made it all possible.
It’s possible that you may not have heard of Phentermine because its new, separate form was only relatively recently approved for use as a weight loss aid. Until 1997, Phentermine had been sold in the drug combination known as “Fen-Phen”. Phentermine itself, the “Phen” in Fen-Phen, has been around for over fifty years.
Questions I’m Often Asked about Phentermine At this point, I’m sure you have many questions about Phentermine. So, here, I will answer the questions I’m most commonly asked about this drug. Below, you will find answers related to what Phentermine is, how it is used, its effects and how it can be obtained.
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What is Phentermine? Phentermine is a psychostimulant drug, akin to amphetamines, that’s used worldwide to reduce appetite. It works by lessening your urge to eat and thereby lowering your caloric intake. It is most effective as a short-term appetite-suppressing weight loss drug for those unable or unwilling to exercise.
Is Phentermine a New, Experimental Drug? No. As previously mentioned, Phentermine has been around for over fifty years. However, until 1997, it was always found in the drug combination Fen-Phen. In 2012, years after Fen-Phen had been discontinued in the U.S., Phentermine was approved to be used in the Phentermine-Topiramate drug cocktail.
Solving Obesity-Related Infertility with Phentermine Weight-related infertility is a growing medical issue you might be unaware of. Surprisingly, it affects nearly 34% of overweight women and just under 18% of severely overweight men. The fertility issues suffered by women primarily originate from excessive belly fat, the most harmful type of obesity. This fat crowds and interferes with the functioning of a woman’s reproductive organs and affects her hormonal balance. Researchers have discovered that there is a strong correlation between the number of fat cells in a person’s body and their blood’s estrogen levels; more fat cells equal more estrogen in the blood.
Increased estrogen levels in the body can lead to many negative effects, like reproductive organ dysfunction, disruptions in natural reproductive processes and it can even cause various cancers. Of course such hormonal changes affect a woman’s menstrual cycle and reduce the effectiveness of fertility treatments involving egg implantation and hormonal therapy. Excessive estrogen levels impact a woman’s menstrual cycle by interfering with the natural interaction that occurs every month between estrogen and insulin. Normally these two hormones work together to build up the lining of a woman’s uterus, in preparation to receive a fertilized egg. When this essential reproductive interaction is disrupted, insulin tends to cause rapid cell reproduction that leads to abnormal organ enlargement and sometimes to cancer.
Fortunately, there’s an effective treatment to remedy infertility caused by obesity. It’s a hunger-suppressing prescription drug called Phentermine, often prescribed by doctors to help those suffering from obesity. Now, it’s increasingly being used to give obese women the opportunity to become mothers. Since it was first approved for medical use in the U.S. in 1959, this rapid weight loss medicine has had a long track record of producing excellent results. As Phentermine quickly helps you lose weight and shed those fertility-undermining fat cells, it’s indirectly returning your body to its normal hormonal balance. This helps stop abnormal cell growth and correct fertility issues. The normal interaction between your body’s insulin and estrogen is restored, giving egg implantation efforts a greater likelihood of success. Also, Phentermine helps reduce complications during pregnancies, like premature birth. Ultimately, with Phentermine and infertility treatments, most women suffering from obesity-related infertility can eventually become mothers.
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Has the Medical Industry Officially Approved Phentermine as a Weight Loss Drug? In a word, yes, Phentermine has been approved for use as a weight loss drug by U.S. medical professionals. Considering this, it is generally much safer than others and has far fewer known side effects. With all this said, in order to maximize this medicine’s effectiveness, it is important to read the drug inserts carefully and to only take the recommended dosages.
Why Take Phentermine to Lose Weight? You may wonder if taking an appetite suppressant like Phentermine is a good idea. A major reason for using one is that many people find it much easier to complete a diet with the assistance of such a drug. Moreover, the weight loss associated with taking Phentermine can often be seen after just one week of use. Many users are even able to reach their ultimate weight loss goals in only twelve weeks. Other important reasons for using these pills are that it’s cheap and easy to acquire. You can easily obtain phentermine online without needing to see a doctor for a prescription.
Are You Required to Obtain a Prescription for Phentermine?
As stated in the previous answers, you do not need to get a prescription for this over-the-counter drug. Also, it can readily be purchased online.
What is the Most Effective Way to Lose Weight, While Taking Phentermine? While, over time, you will passively lose weight when taking Phentermine, results will be enhanced if you also eat a sensible diet and adhere to a good physical exercise regimen. In doing so, you will likely experience more rapid weight loss and reach your goals sooner.
In Order to Lose Weight, is it Necessary to Exercise While Taking Phentermine? As noted in the previous question, it is not necessary to exercise when taking Phentermine. You will likely automatically lose significant weight simply by taking this drug. However, if you do exercise while taking these pills, you will only increase the amount and speed of your weight loss.
How Quickly Does Phentermine Work? Results vary from person to person, since everyone’s body is different. In general, though, weight loss is rather rapid. As long as proper dosages are used, most people see results between one week and a month after they start taking Phentermine.
Who Shouldn’t Take Phentermine? Although most people can take this drug, there are a few who shouldn’t. Phentermine isn’t for those with a history of drug addiction or health conditions like glaucoma, hyperthyroidism or cardiovascular disease. Pregnant women, those planning on becoming pregnant and breastfeeding mothers should also avoid Phentermine. When taking this medicine, users should not drink alcohol or take anti-depressants containing MAOIs.
What are the Side Effects of Phentermine? It’s important to read the information insert that comes with your shipment of Phentermine. This will inform you about every known side effect and drug interaction related to this medicine. With that said, very few people ever experience significant side effects while taking this drug. There are, however, a relatively small number of people who do experience serious complications like gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, pulmonary or central nervous system issues. Fortunately, most of these problems are exceedingly rare.
Is it Possible to Overdose on Phentermine? It is possible to overdose on any drug or supplement. This is why following the included instructions and always taking the correct dose are paramount. If you do overdose, quickly contact medical professionals and inform them you are taking Phentermine.
Can U.S. Residents Purchase Phentermine? Yes, it’s easy for U.S. residents to purchase as much of this medicine online as they need. Several approved sellers service the U.S. and can quickly deliver your orders, regardless of where you live.
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Preventing and Treating Cardiovascular Diseases With Phentermine Worldwide, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most common life-threatening conditions to affect people. The World Health Organization (WHO) notes that these diseases of the heart and circulatory system are, in fact, the leading cause of death internationally, being responsible for over a third of all global deaths. Moreover, WHO asserts that they are increasingly affecting and are currently most prevalent in developing countries, where over 75% of CVD-related deaths occur.
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It’s no wonder why so many doctors prefer Phentermine over other appetite-suppressing medicines. Within just the first few weeks of starting their Phentermine regimen, patients often notice a reduction in hunger and then realize considerable weight loss. As they eat fewer fatty foods, many patients experience a healthy snowballing effect as their cholesterol levels lower, circulation improves, blood pressure decreases and overall stress on their cardiovascular system declines. The end result of all this goes far beyond simple weight loss. Phentermine ultimately makes patients less likely to develop debilitating and deadly cardiovascular issues like brain aneurysms, heart attacks and blood clots.
Precautions, Warnings and Potential Drug Interactions
While perfectly safe, be aware of the following before and while taking Phentermine. Prior to starting a Phentermine regimen, you should tell your healthcare provider all about your cardiovascular health. Also, you should inform him/her if you have a mood disorder, seizures, thyroid issues or diabetes. Since this is a prescription drug, always discuss any issues, especially cardiovascular problems, you are experiencing while taking this medication. Moreover, never change your dose, without first consulting your doctor, as this may lead to increased heart rates and blood pressure. Avoid alcohol while on this medication as it can produce similar results. Handle Phentermine and cardiovascular diseases with care.
Perhaps the most prominent of all disorders affecting racehorses is “bleeding” or exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH). We now know, for a fact, that most racehorses will bleed during their careers. Many horses bleed every time they undertake intense exercise, such as racing and breezing. We also know that bleeding can occur in situations other than dash or flat racing. EIPH has also been detected in horses such as three-day eventers, steeplechasers and polo ponies… among others. EIPH has also been observed in draft horses pulling heavy loads. The one common denominator is strenuous exercise.
Even though EIPH has been recognized for over 300 years, we still have more questions than answers when it comes to the cause and prevention of EIPH. Research in the last 30 plus years has shed some light on why horses bleed during strenuous exercise… but even today there is no true consensus regarding the cause of EIPH.
How do we treat and prevent bleeding? It is a tough task. In large part, it is because of the controversy concerning the potential performance-enhancing effects of furosemide (Salix, formerly known as Lasix), the drug administered to racehorses who have a history of bleeding. Also, in many instances, Salix is not the answer because it has a short half-life.
How Common is EIPH???
To answer this question, we need to define what EIPH is. Once upon a time, before the advent of endoscopes, a horse was called a “bleeder” only when it shed blood from their nose after a race (epistaxis). However, research studies have shown that epistaxis occurs in only an extremely small percentage of racehorses that actually bleed (1-2%).
Therefore, if bleeding is defined as the presence of blood in the windpipe or trachea after hard exercise, the percentage of affected absolutely horses skyrockets. This type of EIPH has been referred to as “internal” bleeding. In this case, the horse bleeds from the lung, up into the trachea and not out of the nose.
In studies of Standardbreds and thoroughbreds, where these horses were scoped 60-90 minutes after racing, bleeding was detected in 50-60% of horses! In studies where the same horses were examined after three races, almost 90% bled on at least one occasion!!!
Another indicator of bleeding is the presence of a red blood cell breakdown product hemosiderin in lung macrophages. These are detected from a broncho alveolar lavage (BAL) or tracheal wash, in which a small amount of fluid is placed into the lung and then drawn out to be analyzed, which essentially “washes” part of the lung. Studies have shown that over 90% all racehorses have these hemosiderin-laden macrophages in these lung secretions, indicating that there was some degree of bleeding that has occurred in the recent past.
Also, it is apparent that even young racehorses experience some degree of EIPH soon after beginning fast work. In general, the incidence and severity of bleeding increase with age, due to scarring that occurs from previous bouts with EIPH. Consistent with this bleeding from the nose is more prevalent in older horses.
All of this tells us that EIPH does occur in most… if not all, racehorses. The severity of bleeding will probably vary greatly between horses but appears to greatly worsen as the age of the horse increases. There have been very few studies on “bleeding horses” performing other intense exercise (eg., three-day eventing or polo). In one study of top-level three-day event horses, only about 13% had evidence of bleeding after the cross-country phase of the competition.
Can EIPH Alter Athletic Ability?
EIPH causes a decrease in racing performance when a horse bleeds. However, this is another one of the combative issues surrounding EIPH. Remember that most horses will bleed to some extent during strenuous exercise, thereby making it almost impossible to sort out the effects of bleeding on racing and performance. Furosemide is administered as a pre-race in the belief that it will prevent bleeding and allow the horse to perform at their best, thereby “evening the playing field” among bleeders and non-bleeders in that race.
Some believe that mild bleeding likely has minimal or no effect on performance. We tend to disagree. You try to run a race then then pinch your nose closed for the last 1/8th of the race. That short lack of oxygen will take a few ticks away from your time, plus increase lactic acid levels. Obviously, severe bleeding would impair exercise performance by decreasing oxygen uptake in the lung, which shrinks the amount of space in the airway. Also, blood could flood many of the airways which will prevent the normal exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
The long-term effects of repeated bleeding episodes on lung health and function also should be considered. Researchers have proposed that EIPH contributes to the development of chronic inflammatory airway disease (CIAD), which is a condition that is associated with a decrease in athletic performance.
Most horses that work at high energy intensity tend to bleed and those that do and are bleeders require a special management program. Minimizing your horse’s exposure to stress, allergens, and dust and also maximizing their level of fitness for their job will ensure you that every breath they take is as healthy as possible.